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Machinery in 399 B.C. Mesoamerica

"In fine workmanship...in machinery..."

"And we...became exceedingly rich... in fine workmanship... in machinery, and also in iron and copper, and brass and steel, making all manner of tools of every kind to till the ground..."  (Jarom 1:8)  399 B.C.

This is a very strange thing to claim in the 1830 A.D Book of Mormon that in the Americas, the Nephite  Book of Mormon people had and used anything that would be call “machinery”, in 399 B.C.

  << A stone carving at Copán Honduras of geared wheels called cogweels.

 << In the Ancient city of Copán they had the knowledge and used geared "machinery" called cogwheels.
A society using cogwheel technology possessed some knowledge of mechanical engineering.


   << Puma Punku, Bolvia

Pumapunku or Puma Punku is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, in western Bolivia. It is believed to date to 536AD to 600AD and later. [Pre-Inca Empire]
  << Archaeologists concluded that these and other red sandstone blocks were transported up a steep incline from a quarry near Lake Titicaca roughly 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) away. Smaller andesite blocks that were used for stone facing and carvings came from quarries within the Copacabana Peninsula about 90 kilometres (56 miles) away from and across Lake Titicaca from the Pumapunku and the rest of the Tiwanaku Site”

   << In assembling the walls of Pumapunku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with the surrounding stones. The blocks were fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar. One common engineering technique involves cutting the top of the lower stone at a certain angle, and placing another stone on top of it which was cut at the same angle. The precision with which these angles have been utilized to create flush joints is indicative of a highly sophisticated knowledge of stone-cutting and a thorough understanding of descriptive geometry. Many of the joints are so precise that not even a razor blade will fit between the stones. Much of the masonry is characterized by accurately cut rectilinear blocks of such uniformity that they could be interchanged for one another while maintaining a level surface and even joints. However, the blocks do not have the same dimensions, although they are close. The blocks were so precisely cut as to suggest the possibility of prefabrication and mass production, technologies far in advance of the Tiwanaku’s Inca successors hundreds of years later. 
Tiwanaku engineers were also adept at developing a civic infrastructure at this complex, constructing functional irrigation systems, hydraulic mechanisms, and waterproof sewage lines.
Some of these stones block have a 6 mm wide groove containing drilled holes. It could not have been made with stone or copper tools. The diameter of the small holes varies by no more than 0.1 mm. Since the rock is brittle, it must have been drilled with a tool fixed on a mount, as any wobbling would have left visible traces.  (Pumapunku, Wikipedia, 2017)(Lost Civilizations of he Andes by Davie Pratt)

   << At Tiwanaku and Puma Punku selective use was made of metal clamps or ties. For instance, the sidewalls of the water channels in the Akapana and at Puma Punku are built with upright stone slabs held together with I-shaped clamps. This was to hold the slabs in the proper alignment. Clamps also once pieced together the enormous sandstone slabs used in the construction of the four platforms at Puma Punku. A unique feature at Puma Punku is the use of recessed clamping. The clamps used had a wide range of shapes and sizes, and the fact that the clamps are level even when the channel walls and the clamp sockets are at a slope of about 12° is usually interpreted to mean that they were cast directly into the sockets. 
A spectrographic analysis of a surviving clamp showed that it was made of an unusual alloy – 95.15% copper, 2.05% arsenic, 1.70% nickel, 0.84% silicon and 0.26% iron. A portable smelter operating at extremely high temperatures would have been required for this purpose.  (Moroni's Latter-Day Saint Page)
   << Some of these blocks, bluish-gray in color, are finished to 'machine' quality and the holes drilled to perfection.  (Pumapunku, Wikipedia, 2017)(Lost Civilizations of he Andes by Davie Pratt)
 "They drilled with drills made of copper and gold having a method of tempering the metal until it was as hard as steel, a method that is unknown to our generation....  The substance was called champi."  (The National Magazine, Vol. 40)

<< Old Stone Grinding lathe Machinery, Indiana 1920's

<< Old Stone Grinding lathe Machinery early 1900.s 

   << Old metal lathe with teeth, from California



Some kind of stone lathe machinery, had to be used to make the following pillars in Mesoamerican.    

   << Stone Pillars-Machined on a stone lathe (Jack West)

        << Mesoamerican rock pillars shaped with huge rock lathes used to machinery grind the pillars. A 100 room building, 5 stories high. Pillars that were machine lathed, with teeth marks on each end of the pillars. The teeth marks were from the pillars being clamped into some kind of ancient machine lathe.


   << Machine lathed pillars on ancient Mesoamerican building, Jack West & Guide

(Ancient Ruins of America[1:24 hr.] (1978) by Jack West)