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They Had Rent Their Garments

   <<  Captain Moroni Title of liberty
“…Moroni…went forth among the people, waving the rent part of his garment in the air, that all might see the writing which he had written upon the rent part…” 

“And it came to pass that when Moroni had proclaimed these words, behold, the people came running together...rending their garments in token, or as a covenant, that they would not forsake the Lord their God; or, in other words, if they should transgress the commandments of God, or fall into transgression, and be ashamed to take upon them the name of Christ, the Lord should rend them even as they had rent their garments.”  (Alma 46:19-21)

What is Captain Moroni talking about when he says that the people rent their garments?
The word rent means: "To tear".  

Why would these Book of Mormon people tear their clothing or garments?
Clothing was a valuable item.  Why would they tear up or destroy valuable clothing?  

It was a common Hebrew reaction of expressing grief and expressing the seriousness of a situation.
It was also a common reaction among ancient Hebrews and ancient Hittites to use some physical object or action to demonstrate what would happen to you if you violate your oath.  

"...the Lord should rend them even as they had rent their garments."  (Alma 46:21)
This is called a Simile Curse, which is also a common Hebrew grammatical custom.

"Then David took hold on his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the men that were with him:"
 (2 Samuel 1:11)

"Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He hath spoken ablasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy."  (Matthew 26:65)

Additional Information:
Simile Curses in the Ancient Near East..., by Mark J. Morriset